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7.3 The Ideal Type

The chapter entitled Zur Entstehung der Texte gives a detailed report on the individual publication's politico-historical context and its context in the history of research and also provides a critical analysis of its sources. This is followed by lists, glossaries and indexes. Solche Ersatzzeugen werden dann in die Ausgabe mit aufgenommen, wenn sie in unmittelbarem zeitlichen Zusammenhang mit der betreffenden Rede oder Stellungnahme Webers entstanden. Jedem Bandtitel ist ferner eine Zeitangabe zugeordnet. Alle textspezifischen Informationen geben die Editorischen Berichte.

Er stellt ferner seine Entstehung und Entwicklung dar. Liegen mehrere Fassungen eines Textes vor, wird dargelegt, welche der Fassungen edierter Text und welche Variante ist. Textentwicklung Liegt ein Text in mehreren autorisierten Fassungen vor, ist eine Fassung zum edierten Text bestimmt. Dies ist in der Regel die Fassung letzter Hand. Jede zur Variante bestimmte Fassung wird im textkritischen Apparat mitgeteilt, in der Regel mit Hilfe eines negativen Apparats. Sie werden bei Textverderbnissen vorgenommen.

Der Eingriff wird dadurch nachgewiesen, dass die verderbte Stelle im textkritischen Apparat mitgeteilt wird. Hat Weber ein Zitat nicht belegt, wird es im Apparat nachgewiesen. Es wird ein Kurztitel verwendet. Sachliche Fehler Webers werden im Apparat berichtigt. Edierter Text und Varianten sind gleichwertig. Kleine lateinische Buchstaben verbinden den edierten Text mit dem textkritischen Apparat. Sie stehen hinter dem varianten oder emendierten Wort.

Bezieht sich die textkritische Anmerkung auf mehr als ein Wort, so markiert ein gerade gesetzter Index den Anfang und damit ein kursiv gesetzter Index das Ende der fraglichen Wortfolge amit Amerikaa. Die an Max Weber gerichteten Briefe werden nicht abgedruckt, es wird von ihnen auch kein Verzeichnis erstellt. Die Briefe werden chronologisch nach den Schreibtagen ediert. Die Briefe werden in chronologischer Folge abgedruckt.

Abschriften und Vordrucke von Briefen werden nur nachgewiesen, wenn sie die Quelle der Edition darstellen.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Liegen mehrere Fassungen eines Briefes vor, wird hier auch dargelegt, welche als Text abgedruckt und welche als Varianten mitgeteilt werden. Ferner umfassen die Editorischen Vorbemerkungen Regesten solcher Korrespondenda bzw. Textkritischer Apparat Im textkritischen Apparat werden Textentwicklung und Texteingriffe nachgewiesen. Textentwicklung Liegt ein Brief in mehreren Fassungen vor, wird eine Fassung zum edierten Text bestimmt. Der Originalbrief bzw. Liegen parallele Ausfertigungen des Originalbriefs oder mehrere zu edierende Abschriften vor, werden diese mit O1, O2, usw. Sachliche Fehler werden im Apparat berichtigt.

Um die Herausgeberrede von Webers Text abzuheben, ist sie in anderer Schrifttype gesetzt. Die Briefe werden nicht abgebildet. Doch weist der textkritische Apparat Streichungen nach. Kursiver Druck charakterisiert unterstrichene Textstellen des Brieforiginals. Verwendet Weber vorgedrucktes Briefpapier, so werden diejenigen Teile des Briefkopfes, die er in seine Orts- und Datumsangabe integriert, in einer abweichenden, kursiven Schrifttype wiedergegeben. Ethics preoccupied Weber from his speech on the nation-state to his lectures on vocation of His influential distinction of between the necessary and legitimate role of values in formulating a research problem and the actual investigation of a topic in which the scholar should strive for objectivity helped provide a defense of scholarship in an era when value consensus could not be assumed.

He himself referred to the "hair-line which separates science from faith," and noted that the "objective validity of all empirical knowledge rests exclusively upon the ordering of the given reality according to categories which are subjective. By , when Weber composed Economy and Society , his focus had shifted to the problem of where values originate in the first place. But Harvey Goldman's examination of Weber's treatment of "ethics, meaning, and the question of how to lead one's life" p.

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Goldman notes an important change in Weber's approach to values after World War I had begun. He had already argued that irreconcilable values existed in the world in , but, Goldman argues, at that point he still focused on the value of the personality that chooses values, and employed a language of relative costs, choices and so on p.

During World War I, he began to invoke polytheism to describe value conflict. He began to refer to an "irreconcilable deadly struggle" among warring gods whom individuals served, an image that, Goldman argues, is actually not polytheistic, but reflects the absolutism of Christianity and monotheism. Unlike polytheism, which assumed that individuals can worship different gods within a stable community, Weber's notion assumes conflict pp. His ethics set the individual before the stark choice of acting on absolute, moral conviction or acting responsibly in light of probable outcomes--that is, without an absolute goal, following purely technical dictates p.

While the tension between conviction and responsibility can, in fact, work out in practice and Goldman may underestimate Weber's argument in that an ethics of responsibility and an ethics of conviction must play a "mutually complementary" rather than absolutely antithetical role , Goldman is right when he notes that Weber lacks a notion of how to mediate value conflicts p. Political decisionism is, of course, different from individual ethics. Schmitt was, like Weber, a thinker who put power into the center of his political theory; like Weber, he advocated a strong presidency; like Weber he pointed out the inevitability of conflict over values in the modern world, where political differences always contained the possibility of existential conflict between friend and enemy.

Nonetheless, several important pieces on democracy and revolution ask whether Weber had an adequate normative theory of democracy in addition to the impressive technical critique of the German Empire in his "Parliament and Government in Germany under a New Political Order. Regina F. Titunik's essay, entitled "Democracy, Domination, and Legitimacy in Max Weber's Political Thought," addresses an apparent gap in Weber's work on democratization. The problem, as she sees it, is that Weber is concerned primarily with domination--that is, inequality and unequal power relations--and its legitimacy, not with "a condition of equal freedom where no one will prevails over others," which "seemingly requires no supporting ideological legitimation" p.

As a liberal, Titunik argues, Weber implicitly took the condition of free and equal human beings as the starting-point or touchstone for considering relationships of rule" p. But these transitional forms, Titunik shows, were of great import for Weber.

Calvinismus - Translation from German into English | PONS

They included moments of direct democracy, when the rule of notables was challenged in uprisings; they included the occidental city, which provided for self-government in place of direct domination; they included the sect, based on grace and voluntary association rather than the given hierarchy of the existing church; and they included the rights of man.

The examples Titunik has found show how Weber's empirical work at times pointed beyond the bounds of his political theory of legitimation. But they may not add up to a kind of concealed utopian moment in Weber.


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Titunik herself notes that Weber found in direct democracy the tendency to accelerate the growth of bureaucratic structures, as a way of compensating for the lack of expertise of the masses. Indeed, as Hans Joas notes in another essay in the collection, Weber refers to human rights as "extreme rationalist fanaticism" in an important section of Economy and Society p. That said, Titunik's essay provides a valuable way into understanding Weber's dynamic political sociology, where action with one aim, such as an anti-bureaucratic uprising, may lead to utterly opposed consequences--the creation of a new elite based on expertise in the face of disorganization or the transformation of direct, spontaneous charisma into institutions.

As a social scientist with an eye for details, Weber's writing on the Russian Revolution of , undertaken in the midst of the events, marked an early and important example of modern approaches to revolution, stressing processes, the formation of alliances and the tendency toward dictatorship and new bureaucracies. By contrast, he notes, Weber's theoretical discussion of revolution in Economy and Society stressed the tendency toward chaos and increased rationalization of bureaucratic control: the only counter-current to the tendency toward "undemocratic bureaucracy" is to be found in historical accident, and this "hurried list" of "historical factors does not add up to a coherent theory of democracy" p.

Weber's theoretical discussions of legitimacy and democracy in Economy and Society , in short, would not go far in explaining At the same time, though, his practical reporting on , with its careful articulation of ideas and interests at particular moments and its sense of an open political outcome, could be of service to historians. Titukin and Collins both play an overarching narrative of bureaucratization and rationalization off against the openness and potential of situations.

The essays foreground the central tension between grand narrative even if "only" of occidental rationalization--which becomes, after all, universal in Weber's account and local situation. Hans Kippenberg takes up this tension in an essay that goes to the heart of Weber's work--his sociology of religions. That section of Economy and Society , Kippenberg notes, was written around , before the transformative experience of war. It built on Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , in particular the latter's notion of an "elective affinity" between certain communal structures Weber conceptualizes religion as "communal action," with a specific form of orientation to the world and economic structures pp.

But it preceded Weber's famous "intermediary reflections" Zwischenbetrachtungen , in which he examined the different effects of rationalization in different social systems of the modern world. As Kippenberg cogently argues, however, the result was not simply a godless universe, or secularization. The gradual decline of the expectation that the universe would be meaningful, associated with the positivization of law p. Instead, an inward-oriented religiosity arose, world-rejecting in form, but with different effects depending on its precise nature.

The world-rejecting religions were nevertheless part of the world. Indeed, their social function consisted of detaching religion from other, "worldly" social functions.


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  • Meaning remained in other areas of modern life as well, and could even take on sharper forms at the level of specifically individualistic social systems, such as eroticism and art, which reasserted the individual and tended to "re-enchant" the world. In short, the rationalizing modernity of Weber's "Intermediary Reflections" is complex and differentiated, very different from his monochrome image of an iron casing of rationalization.

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    Religion does not go away in modernity, just as neither communal action nor meaning do; rather, it occupies a different and increasingly complex place in the world. It is unfortunate that no further explanation of the relationship between Weber and Luhmann appears in the book, since such work would help clarify Weber's place in German sociological traditions.

    Such comparisons serve to focus on the key aspects distinguishing one theorist's work from another's.